Doctor of Medicine is a terminal degree for physicians and surgeons. In some countries it is a professional doctorate where training is entered after obtaining between 90 and 120 credit hours of university level work and in most cases after obtaining a bachelor's degree. In other countries, such as Germany, India, Ireland, and the United Kingdom, M.D. is a research degree which is equivalent to a Ph.D. In Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, India, and many British Commonwealth nations, the medical degree is instead the MBBS (MB BCh BAO, MBChB, MBBChir, BMBCh, MBBCh, BMBS, BMed, BM, etc.) and, thus, the M.D. is a higher level of attainment in these countries.